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Tuesday, October 19, 2021

Error Correction, Exercise 2

  

Identify the error(s) (if any) in the sentences below. Some sentences may contain more than one error. Correct them all.

A dog bitted the postman as he was passing by a fence.

On the chair was a white beautiful cat.

Everybody believed they are still in love and one journalist even asked whether would they give him an interview.

The news were being widespread about the miners’ having stroked gold.

Somebody must have remembered him to pay the bill.

This cupboard is containing the new equipment.

The students have never been explained the problem properly.

I never watched TV in the evening.

There was the most beautiful girl in that room.

Everybody thought she has been dying her hair for years.

Could you please remember me to ring him up at 5.00?

Why didn’t you lie the table? You know we’ve got guests tonight.

No, don’t buy tea.  She uses to drink coffee in the morning.

The analyses which they came up with was incredible.

They have never met anyone nice somewhere.

They insist that he left at once.

It surprised me them finding him there.

Tuesday, October 5, 2021

Nouns & Quantifiers Exercise

  


Underline the correct answer:

Lots of people have/has computer.                        
A lot of my friends work/works in London.
There is/ are lots of cinemas here.                                   
There is/are lots of food in the fridge.
Lots of snow has/have fallen today.                       
A lot of things need/needs to change.

Put a little or a few:
I know …………… English.                                          
I speak …………… words of Spanish.
I’ll be on holidays …………… days.                             
Can you give me …………… help?
Ann will be ready in …………… minutes.                      
Could I have …………… more coffee?
I’d like to ask you …………… questions.                      
I’m having …………… trouble with the police.
The soup needs …………… more salt.                          
I’m going away for …………… weeks.

Circle the correct answer:
Example: I have little/a little time to read newspapers and no time at all to read books.

There was little/ a little water on the mountain and we all got very thirsty.
Foreign languages are difficult, and few/a few people learn them perfectly.
I’m going to Scotland with few/a few friends next week.
I’ve brought you few/a few flowers.
Life is very hard in the Artic, so few/a few people live there.

The following quantifiers work with count nouns :
Many    
A few   
Few   
Several     
A couple of    
None of the

The following quantifiers work with non-count nouns :
Not much   
A little   
Little   
A bit of    
No

The following quantifiers work with both count and non-count nouns :

All the    
Some   
Most of the    
Enough   
A lot of    
Lots of    
Plenty of     
A lack of

Put in much or many:
I haven’t got …………… time.                             
She doesn’t speak …………… English.
Are there …………… Americans in your company?
Was there …………… traffic on the road?                     
Have you travelled in …………… countries?
I don’t eat ……………meat.                                         
Not …………… tourists visit our town.
We don’t have…………… rain in summer.                    
I don’t buy …………… clothes.

Put in a/an or some in the following blanks:

1. I read ……… newspaper, wrote ……… letters and listened to ……… music.
2. Would you like ……… milk in your coffee?
3. We met ……… interesting people at the party.
4. We talked to her and she gave us ……… very good advice.
5. She didn’t eat much for lunch : only ……… apple and ……… bread.
6. Would you like ……… bread ?
7. I’m going to make ……… table. First, I need ……… wood.
8. We talked to her and she gave us ……… very good advice.
9. I want to write ……… letter. I need ……… pen and ……… paper.
10. I’m going to open the window to have ……… fresh air.
11. We live in ……… big house. There’s ……… nice garden with ……… beautiful trees.
12. I need ……… money. I want to buy ……… food.
13. Would you like ……… tea ?
14. We had ……… nice weather when we were on holiday.

Friday, September 3, 2021

Some English Grammar Rules

    



Most of the following rules have been used in exam tests over the past years 

SOME ENGLISH   GRAMMAR   RULES

 

  1. Verbele  HAVE , HAVE TO [ echivalentul verbului modal MUST ] se conjuga cu ajutorul auxiliarului do/ does la timpul prezent sau did la timpul trecut.

Ex.

I have to do my homework.

I don`t have to do my homework.

Do I have to do my homework?

 

She has to do her homework, doesn`t she?

He had to do his homework, didn`t he?

dar

He has had to do his homework, hasn`t he? [ present perfect ]

 

  1. MUST HAVE + 3rd form of the verb = cu siguranta ca…

Ex. Sally got home at 4 o`clock this morning. The party must have been really good.


3.AUXILIARE MODALE

 

  1. WOULD RATHER

       I`d rather go out than stay in, wouldn`t I?

       I`d rather you didn`t go out / went out [ we use past tense simple when another person is involved]


subject  + would rather/sooner + clause (subject  + past perfect)

I’d rather we had never met. (= If only we had never met.)
What would you rather I had written? (= What do you wish I had written?)

  1. WOULD PREFER

I would prefer to stay at home.

  1. HAD BETTER

      It`s raining.  You`d better take an umbrella, hadn`t you?


4. a] THIS IS THE FIRST /SECOND / THIRD TIME / IT IS THE FIRST TIME / THIS IS MY FIRST TIME…+  PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE

  

    b] THIS WAS THE FIRST / SECOND,, TIME / IT WAS THE FIRST TIME,,/ THIS WAS MY FIRST TIME,,, + PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE

 

a. This is the first time when I have done my homework.

b. This was the first time when I had made a pizza.


5. CONSTRUCTIONS WITH VERB MIND:

All theses constructions are followed by GERUND.

Do you mind helping me?

I wouldn`t mind helping her.

She doesn`t mind going shopping.

6. IT'S (HIGH) TIME + PAST TENSE

It's (high) time you left. You will miss the bus.

This sentence refers to present time and it implies that perhaps it is already too late. We can use this structure in the past tense too, however, the unreal tense in the second clause will not change.

It was time I left.

Compare with this structure:

It's time (for me) to go.

This sentence implies that the speaker is still in time.

The expression "It is (high/about) time + past verb test" is used to complain about or criticise something or someone:

It is time that the government took action.

It is about time that the government took action.

It is high time that the government took action.

The words about or high make the criticism even stronger. Note that it is also correct to say:        It`s time for the government to take action.


7.The following nouns and words get the indefinite article “a”:

 

Uniform, union, university, unicorn, unit, year, yearly magazine, European [citizen], useful / useless book, hospitable man, wall, white house, whale,  hospital, UFO etc.


8. Inversion :

Hardly / Scarcely / Barely…………….when

No sooner ……………………………..than

So……………………………………that

Such………………………………….that

Not only……………………………...but also

Inversion in If clause : had…, should…. were….


9. Modal verbs:

  1. offering : Shall I help you?
  2. polite offer but very formal: Might I help you?
  3. I am not sure : I might go out / I may go out.
  4. It is possible : I could go out.
  5. rules, obligation: He told us that we mustn`t come in without knocking.
  6. certainty: I am certain that he had a good day.= He must have had a good day.
  7. Difference between needn`t have done si didn`t need to do

-          needn`t have + past participle – it was not necessary but it had been already done

You needn`t have come to meet me at the airport. I could have found your place on my own.

-          didn`t need to + short infinitive – it was not necessary and not done

I did not need to do that exercise = I knew it was not necessary and I didn`t do it.

 

  1. obligation in the past and recommendation:

-          You should have done it = stronger accent

-          You ought to have done it = recommendation

-          Negative : You ought not have done it.

  1. polite requests:

-          very polite: Would you please help me with my luggage?

-          quite polite: Could you please help me with my luggage?

  1. It is my duty = I am supposed to
  2. advice: She advised me to hurry up.= I should hurry up.
  3. non-volition: He wouldn`t go = He didn`t want to go.
  4. possibility: Can that be Paul`s wife?

n. It is possible that they saw us = They may have seen us

o. Perhaps John has written this letter but I`m not sure.= John may have written this letter

They are late: possibly they were held up in a traffic jam.= They may have been held up in a traffic jam.

p. They managed to pass the exam = They were able to pass the exam.

r. I am reasonably certain that Francis is at home.= Francis should be at home.

s. I am certain that Francis is at home.= Francis must be at home.

t. He is not obliged to speak. = He doesn`t have to speak.

u. She repeatedly went swimming when she was ten. = She would go swimming / She used to go swimming ……

v. You don`t have to leave = You may stay.

 

10. Confusable verbs : domake; sit – set ; rise – raise ; lie[to] ; lie ; lay; find – found, remember; remind; borrow from, lend to;


“Mary, could you please lay the table?”, her mother asked.

Miss:

a. miss somebody – a-i fi dor de cineva

b. miss the train / the flight – a pierde trenul / avionul


Arrive:

-          at home

-          in London, in Paris

-          at London, at Paris – harbour / harbor, port, airport, railway station

 

11. Phrasal verbs: cut off, call off, go off, blow up, break into, take aback, put off, put up with, take off, take after, turn down, come back, etc.

 

12. Future in the Past.


Credeam ca o sa-l vizitezi cand o sa afli ca s-a casatorit si e acum in Londra.

thought you would pay him a visit when you learnt he had got married and now was in London.  

      A zis ca va trebui sa stam in casa pana cand se va potoli furtuna.

      He said we would have to stay inside until the storm blew itself out.


13. Present Perfect Simple and signal words: up to now, so far, yet, until now, till now, these days, this week/year/ month/decade, since, for, etc.

 

But,


Since is a connective, as well :
Since [ de vreme ce] you are unable to accept the job, we have offered it to someone else.

 

14.Modals equivalents:

Can = be able to

May = be allowed to / be permitted to

Must = have to

 

and their past forms: was able to / were able to/ was allowed to /were allowed to/was permitted to / were permitted to; had to

15. Direct – Indirect Speech:

present perfect > past perfect + order of words [ S + P + Object]

 

“Why have you parked here?”, asked the policeman

The policeman asked me why I had parked there.


a. Direct – indirect speech + inversion [ with never]

“I have never attended a more boring conference”, Paul said.

Paul said that never before had he attended a more boring conference.


b. + negation

He warned not to touch that wire.

The student begged the teacher not to punish him.

c. Modals in Direct – Indirect Speech


Indirect Speech: She advised me to spend more time in the library.

Direct Speech: “You should spend more time in the library.”


16. NO FUTURE TENSE IN TEMPORAL CLAUSES [ only present tense or present perfect]; it is also possible to use other tenses; past tense, past perfect tense, but no will / would in time sentences

would - possible to use only in indirect speech:

"Will you help me," he asked

He asked me if I would help him


I think you will have to tell him the truth when you meet him. I`ll call you when I have done my homework. It won`t be long before he realizes. Will you come and see me whenever you are in the area?

 

17. Causative Passive Constructions

 

I`m afraid I haven`t had the film developed.

18. Change of Causative verbs from active to passive


They made me laugh – active voice

I was made to laugh – passive voice

 

19. Uncountable nouns + singular verb / quantifiers; mind that: no definite articles [ a, an] with uncountable nouns.


Bad news doesn`t make people happy.- Vestile rele……………..

That information was very precious.- Acele informatii…………………

Money makes the world go round.

All my money is / has been in the bank.

Nowadays news travels fast.


20.Question tags

Nobody phoned, did they?

Nothing was said, was it?

Let`s go downtown, shall we?

Let the door open, will you?

England are going to win the cup, aren`t they?

There can`t have been such a nice day, can there?

There`s hardly any difference, is there?

There`s hardly been any difference, is there?

She has a big house, doesn`t she?

He has got a big house, hasn`t he?

You needn`t go yet, need you?

Nothing has been said, has it?

The sun hardly shone all summer, did it?

I can scarcely do it, can I?

It`s no use trying to do that, is it?

Somebody has to help him, don`t they?


21. A number of + plural verb : A number of students were going to have a strike.

      The number of + singular verb : The number of students was going to ………


22. The degrees of comparison with adjectives and adverbs: good, ill, bad, much, many, little, old, far, thin, pretty, hot, fat, narrow, clever, sly, shy, early, big, busy, etc.


23. fixed expressions :

On time = at the right time

In time = almost too late

In the end = finally [ time]

At the end = place [ at the end of the street]


In the sun, at the back of the house, in the garden / yard, at night / midnight, on the 2nd floor, during this/that year, throughout the year, in October, in summer, in 1997, on Sunday / Easter/Christmas, at Easter/ Christmas, on 21st of July, at 454 Sunset Road, at/on the weekend, on holiday, at the end of the weekend, on a journey / trip / travel to,to go on business, etc.


24. LAST + past tense


When did you last see Jane?
Since I last saw her I haven`t thought of anything else.


25. MAY NOT does not have a short form.

 

26. object to / risk / can`t help/ mind / look forward to,,, + GERUND

Would you object to taking a walk?

I don`t risk / I wouldn`t risk going there.


27. Remember:

Her cruelty / attitude / kindness to animals surprised us.

Don`t be cruel to animals!

The result was not equal to his efforts.

Man is superior to animals.


28. Nouns in the plural:

Clergy, youth [ young people], cattle, police, the old, the elderly, the wounded, the unemployed, the dead, the injured, the poor, the rich, people, scissors, savings [economii], gentry, etc.


29. Remember!

Would rather

Would prefer

Had better


30. Another forms in the comparative and superlative for the adjective long are:

Long – lengthier – the lengthiest

 

In general a journey is lengthier than a travel or trip.


31. Remember:


As you sow you shall reap. – Culegi ce ai semanat.

Try as I may / might,… – Oricat de mult as incerca..

Try as I may, I can never solve this problem.

Try as I might, I could never solve this problem.

Come what may – Fie ce-o fi.


32. would like + long infinitive of the verb

I would like to help you with your homework.


33. TO BE WORTH – a merita; a valora

When the verbal construction to be worth is followed by a verb, it should be gerund form.

The word worth does not change its form in any case.

Last year I was worth a million dollars.

It was worth doing it.

It is worth walking in the park.

It has / had been worth doing it.

 

34. later / later on

He`s coming later / later on this evening.

Later on may have a slightly more expansive tone than later, but this is hard to prove.


35. Present Continuous Tense is used with the adverbs forever, always, continually when we speak about an annoying or irritating situation ;

 

She is always making noise at night.

He is continually looking at himself in the mirror.


36.Word order in questions:


Do you know where the station is?

Did you know where the station was?


37. Have you been waiting long for me? – Ma astepti de mult? [ going on action]

      Have you waited long for me? – Ai asteptat mult? [ recently finished action]


38. If clauses – three types and mixed types

If she had been more careful, she wouldn`t be in hospital now[ mixed type]

If you were more sensible [rational, prudent], you wouldn`t have spoken to your girlfriend like that.[ mixed type]


Should = if it happens that, in case


Should you have any information on the missing person, please call the nearest police station. - inversion in if clauses type I


Were I you, I wouldn`t do that. - inversion in if clauses type II

Had she been more careful, she wouldn`t have had that accident. - inversion in if clauses type III

39. Sequence of tenses.

Past simple vs. past perfect simple and continuous.


I went to bed after Monica had left.

He showed me his collection of postcards which he had been collecting for years as traveling always had fascinated him.

told him I would help him as soon as I had time. [ past tense + future in the past]


40. Eprimarea gradului superlativ in cazul comparatiei dintre 2 persoane, obiecte, fenomene, lucruri, etc.

In cazul in care se face comparative intre 2 persoane, obiecte, fenomene, etc. si vrem sa exprimam gradul superlativ, formula este urmatoarea:

The + comparative of the adjective

Ex. “Which of those [ two ] dresses do you like”?

        “The blue one is the prettier”. – Cea albastra este cea mai frumoasa.

       Mary is the taller of the two girls. = Mary este cea mai inalta dintre cele doua fete.

 

Tuesday, August 10, 2021

If Clause, Exercise 18

     

A. Complete the exercise with If or Unless. 

 1. -------- you drive more carefully, you will have an accident. 

 2. ---------- you prune these trees, they won’t grow well. 

 3. He’ll get lost ---------------someone shows him the way. 

 4. ---------------- you practice your English, you can improve it quickly. 

 5. ------------------ you don’t hurry, you’ll be late for school again. 

 6. ---------------- there is oxygen, fire cannot burn. 

 7. --------------------you go to bed late, you’ll feel tired in the morning. 

 8. My parents will be angry ---------------------- I pass my exams. 

 9. You can’t travel abroad -----------------you don’t have a passport. 

10. You can’t watch TV ----------------you finish your homework. 

11.-------------------they lower the price, I won’t buy that computer. 


B. Complete the exercise with If or When. 

1. -------------------I am late this evening, don’t wait for me. 

2. ---------- I don’t see you tomorrow, I will phone you. 

3. Do you mind --------------I close the window? 

4. ---------------------- I get up in the morning I usually drink a cup of coffee. 

5. Have something to eat. ---------------you don’t eat now, you’ll be hungry later. 

6. John is still at school. ------------------- he leaves, he wants to go to university. 

7. Be careful! ----------------you aren’t careful, you’ll fail. 

8. -------------I see him, I will tell you right away.

9. Please call us ---------------- you arrive.

10. I am going to tell her --------------- she comes.