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Saturday, February 18, 2017

The Past Perfect Tense Simple & Continuous Explanations

                                            

               PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE

FORM
Affirmative  – Had + 3rd form of verb
Interrogative – Had + S + 3rd form of verb
Negative – S + had + negation + 3rd form of verb

Using the Past Perfect

The past perfect tense is most often used for the following:

1: The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. 
It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

Examples:
I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.

I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.

Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.

Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?

She only understood the movie because she had read the book.

Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.

We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.

A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?

B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

2: With Non Continuous verbs

With Non-Continuous Verbs we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.

Examples:

We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.

By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.

They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

3: In reported speech

The past perfect is common when we report people's words or thoughts .., as in the following examples:

John said that he had never eaten sushi before.

She told me that she had finished, but I knew she had not.

She wondered why he had been so unkind to her.

He told me he hadn't done his homework, but he hoped to finish it on the bus.

I thought I had sent her a birthday card, but I was wrong.

4. If Clauses

The past perfect tense is used in unreal or hypothetical situations, as in the following sentences:

If I had known you were in Frankfurt, I would have called you. (but I didn't know you were here so I didn't call you!)

If I had had enough money, I would have bought you a better present. (but I didn't have enough money.)

I would have been very angry if you had laughed when I got the answer wrong. (but you didn't laugh, so I wasn't angry.)

She wouldn't have been able to finish, if you hadn't helped her. (but you did help her and she did finish.)
I wish I had studied for my exams. (but I didn't study - and I got bad grades!)

I would have been in big trouble if you hadn't helped me. (but you did help me so I stayed out of trouble.)

INVERSION IN IF CLAUSE:

Had you helped her, she would have passed the exams.

5. the past perfect equivalent of the Present Perfect

He had played hockey.
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
The bike is new. I have bought it.
The bike was new. I had bought it.


              PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Form

The past perfect continuous tense is made with the auxiliaries had been + present participle (-ing ending, e.g. working, trying, writing, singing ... )
Positive statement: I had been doing. 
Negative statement: I had not been doing. 
Question form: Had I been doing?
Negative question: Had I not been doing?

Use
It is used for activities that began before a point of time and were still continuing at that point of time.
Last summer Josh had been renovating his house for two years. (He started three years ago and last summer he was still renovating his house.)

Note
The past perfect continous and the present perfect continuous are basically very similar. The difference is, however, that in the present perfect we refer to the present times.
I have been practising since morning. (I am still practising.)
At 11 o'clock I had been practising for two hours. (I began at 9 o'clock and at 11 o'clock I was still practising.)

The past perfect simple vs past perfect continuous

For activities that can continue for a long time we can use both the simple and continuous (work, run, study, travel, sleep ...). 
There is practically no difference in meaning, but the continuous is more usual in English.

Stephen was pretty tired. He had worked all day.

Stephen was pretty tired. He had been working all day.

In other cases these two forms have a completely different meaning.

Before midnight Paul had translated the article. (He finished his work.)

Before midnight Paul had been translating the article. (He did not finish it. He was still translating at that moment.)

If we refer to a number of individual events or events that were repeated, we must use the simple.


Before the lesson ended they had written three tests. (three individual completed activities)

But: 
It was exhausting. They had been writing tests since the lessons started. (one uninterrupted incomplete activity)

Thursday, February 16, 2017

If Clause, Exercise 14

If you don`t stop now, you ---- them all before he gets here.
a.     will be using
b.     are using
c.     have used
d.     will have used

----------- some food in the house, the cats -------- for a week.
a.     Unless she hasn`t left / starved
b.     If she would have left / hadn`t been starving
c.     Even if she left / wouldn`t be starving
d.     Had she left / wouldn`t have been starving

----------, I`m sure he would have gone to bed.
a.      Had he been sleepy  
b. Unless he had been sleepy
c. However he had been sleepy   
d. As if he had been sleepy

If I -------- hard when I was young, I ------ where I am now.
a. hadn`t worked / wouldn`t be    
b. didn`t work / wouldn`t be
c.  hadn`t worked / won`t be   
d. haven`t worked / won`t have been

Daca n-ai fi fost tu sa ne imprumuti bani, ne-am fi dus la banca.
a. If it hadn`t been for you to lend us the money, we would have gone to the bank.
b. But for you not to lend us the money, we would go to the bank.
c.  If it weren`t for you to lend us the money, we went to the bank.
d.  Hadn`t been you to lend us the money, we would have gone to the bank.

 If they -------- the ferry, they ------ here now.
a. catch / are                           
b. will catch / will be
c. have caught / have been           
d. had caught / would be

If she ----- the train, she should be here now.
a. hadn`t missed       
b. doesn`t miss
c. hasn`t missed        
d. didn`t miss

If she hadn`t got back so late last night, she ---- to work on time.
a. isn`t coming
b. doesn`t come
c. won`t come      
d. would have come

Saturday, February 4, 2017

CEF Test


                                 CEF TEST

CEF stands for the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEF or CEFR) and was put together by the Council of Europe as a way of standardizing the levels of language exams in different regions. 
It is very widely used internationally and all important exams are mapped to the CEFR.

Underline the correct answer:

-------------- I still was able to get to the top of the mountain.
Even though unfit              
While ever out of condition
Unfit as I am                       
Much as I`m unfit 

She managed to pull the horse up in spite of ________ a broken rein.
had                
have           
has         
having 

By the time they _________ at the concert, the tickets were sold out.
got through                
turned up                
filled in                         
applied to 

_________, I don`t want to spend the weekend with her.
When liking her company at work           
In spite to enjoy working with her
Much as I enjoy her company at work     
She is very good company while at work 

_________ longer do we perceive the only great threat to our security in the hostile maneuvers of foreign armies.
Not                
No                         
For                      
Any 

I think going for the weekend to the coast _________ be a good idea.
bound to                
mustn`t                     
would                        
should 

_______ he should have spent all the weekend preparing for his test, he in fact just lay in bed watching videos.
However             
Nevertheless          
Whereas                     
Despite 

I benefited a great deal _______ taking that online training course.
from                
with                 
off                  
for 

I can reassure you that everything _______ as quickly as possible.
will be dealt                    
will deal            
will be dealt with                  
will deal with 

Bob couldn't ______ a moustache to the photo of his Headmaster in the newspaper.
resist adding               
resist to add               
resist from adding               
resist for adding 

The more I get to know him, the _______ I like him.
most                
less                  
much                         
lesser 

You'd rather stay at home tonight, _______you?
wouldn't             
didn't                 
won't                     
hadn't 

 James is staying with _______ while he is in New York — their son, Nick Green, will then come back with James for a few weeks over here.
the Greens                 
Greens                   
the Green                  
Green 

Unfortunately, their house _______ while they were at the restaurant celebrating their anniversary.
got burgled           
went burgled             
had burgled       
burgled

Kevin'll do well in the job _______ he stays on the right side of the boss.
as far as              
as soon as               
as long as                
as well as 

I can't imagine any reason _______ he should have behaved in such an extraordinary way.
how              
for                   
that                     
why 

I had no difficulty _______ their house although they had said that people often did.
to find     
to finding                    
finding                     
for finding 

If you can win his attention _______ for you.
the so much better        
the better so much         
so much the better      
so the much better 

In such a plight _______ that we had no choice but to radio for help.
we ourselves found   
did we find ourselves     
we found ourselves   
did we ourselves find 

_______ you to change your mind about handing in your notice, we would be happy for you to stay with us.
If               
Should                     
Unless                 
Were 

He crept in _______ his parents should wake up.
lest            
unless      
otherwise                
whereby 

I find _______ very strange that Meena has not been promoted yet.
her             
it                
them              
that 

This time next week I won't be in a stuffy office, _______ on a beach in Spain.
I'll have lain                 
I'll lie             
I'll be lying                            
I'm lying 

They live about _______ from here.
an hour of drive                
a drive hour           
a drive of an hour               
an hour's drive 

The President resigned; the whiff of scandal remained _______
otherwise             
therefore                       
immediately                
nevertheless 

I take great exception _______ the implication that I was not telling the truth.
to               
against             
from              
with 

______ your house repainted every year?
Have you                    
Have you got             
Do you have                       
Have you been 

You must phone us as soon as you _______ home.
are getting                
get              
will get                  
will have got 

The old lady came near to _______ of pneumonia but to everyone's amazement she pulled through.
death                
die                
dying                
being dead 

He escaped by _______
the hair's breadth             
the breadth of a hair        
a breadth of a hair        
a hair's breadth 

No one wants to have extra homework tonight, _______?
don't he               
do they                    
don't they            
does he 

My daughter is planning to spend a year before university working in Australia, _______ seems to me to be a sensible idea.
that                    
which              
where                 
what 

Only on very rare occasions _______ an appearance before midday.
the old lady would make         
would make the old lady       
would the old lady make  
the old lady make would 

I'm sure he only said those things _______.
to my annoyance            
for annoying me         
to annoy me           
for annoy me 

In such a complex situation as this mistakes _______ happen occasionally.
are bound               
to  bound             
bound to     
bound to 

By the time you're my age, you _______ your mind.
will probably have changed            
would probably change        
will probably change  
are probably changing 

We were at a disadvantage _______ that we did not have a very good knowledge of the language the others were using.
by               
with             
in            
for 

I borrowed a _______ bike and went into town in the lunch break.
friend of my             
friend's of my             
friend's of mine        
friend of mine's 

Capital punishment was done _______ in Britain nearly half a century ago.
out for              
off by             
away with             
over from 

Thank you very much. I haven't been to _______ party for ages.
a so enjoyable      
the so enjoyable        
so enjoyable            
so enjoyable a

Thursday, February 2, 2017

Direct - Indirect Speech, Exercise 1



DIRECT – INDIRECT SPEECH

Choose the correct answer:

1. Rosa asked Joe, "Have you been studying English very long?"

Rosa asked Joe when do you study English.
Rosa asked Joe if he had studied English.
Rosa asked Joe if he had been studying English very long.
Rosa asked Joe if he was studying English very long.

2. The test is very difficult, he said.

He says that the test was very difficult.
He said that the test is very difficult.
He said that the test was very difficult.
He said that the tests was very difficult.

3. Tom said, 'I want to visit my friends this weekend.'

Tom said he wants to visit his friends that weekend.
Tom said he wanted to visit his friends that weekend.
Tom said he wanted to visit his friends this weekend.
Tom said he had wanted to visit his friends this weekend.

4. Jerry said, 'I'm studying English a lot at the moment.'

Jerry said he was studying English a lot at that moment.
Jerry said he was studying English a lot at the moment.
Jerry said I was studying English a lot at that moment.
Jerry says he was studying English a lot at that moment.

5. They said, 'We've lived here for a long time.'

They said they have lived there for a long time.
They said they lived here for a long time.
They said they had lived there for a long time.
They said they were living there for a long time.

6. He asked me, 'Have you finished reading the newspaper?'

He asked me if had I finished reading the newspaper.
He asked me if I had finished reading the newspaper.
He asked me if I finished reading the newspaper.
He asked me if I had been finishing reading the newspaper.

7. Indirect: Clinton asked John to go with him.

Direct: Clinton said to John, “Come with me.
Direct: Clinton said to John, “Come to me.
Direct: Clinton says to John, “Come with me.
Direct: Clinton told to John, “Come with me.”


8. Indirect: Rod said to his mother that he would be late that night.

Direct: Rod said to his mother, “I will be late today night.
Direct: Rod said to his mother, “I will be late tonight.
Direct: Rod told to his mother, “I will be late today night.
Direct: Rod told his mother, “I will be late today night.”

9. Direct: “I’m fed up with this cold weather,” my grandmother said.

My grandmother complained that she was fed up with the cold weather.
My grandmother complained that she is  fed up with the cold weather.
My grandmother complains that she was fed up with the cold weather.
My grandmother complained that she would be  fed up with the cold weather.

10. Direct: `What were you doing at this time yesterday?`

He asked me what I were doing at that time yesterday.
He asked me what I was doing at this time the day before.
He asked me what I had been doing at that time yesterday.
He asked me what I had been doing at that time the day before.

11. Direct:` How long have you known your best friend?`, she asked

She asked how long had I known my best friend.
She asked to me how long I had known my best friend.
She asked me how long I had known her best friend.
She asked me how long I had known my best friend.

12. Direct: `What kind of music do you like?`, he asked

 He asked me what kind of music I liked.
 He asked me what kind of music did I like.
 He asked me: What kind of music I liked?
 He asked me what music had I like.