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Friday, August 4, 2017

DO vs. MAKE 2

The two verbs 'do' and 'make' are often confused. 
The meanings are similar, but there are some differences. One of the reasons these two verbs are confused is that many languages use only one verb to mean both 'do' and 'make'.

For example, in German the verb machen.

1. Am facut focul:

Ich habe feuer gemacht - German

have made the fire - English

2. Tocmai am facut cafea proaspata:

Ich habe uns gerade frischen Kaffee gemacht. - German
have just made us fresh coffee.- English

3. Imi fac temele:

  • Ich mache meine Hausaufgaben. - German [ a se retine ca, in limba germana, toate substantivele se scriu cu litera mare indiferent de locul acestora in propozitie ]

    • I’m doing my homework. - English
  • If one wants to make the difference between German and English verbs "machen" and, respectively, "make" he or she will find out that there are many word pairs in German that are quite confusing when one comes from English into German. 
  • After having many people ask me about the difference between “tun” (to do) and “machen” (to make / to do), I thought I would dedicate  some part of this post to clarifying somehow the situation - but not too much.
    The distribution of machen and tun might seem arbitrary, and indeed like most linguistic things it is to a certain degree. 
  • Different regions use different expressions. Most regions in Germany and Switzerland use the expression “Das macht man nicht!” which means in English "One doesn’t do that! / Don’t do that!"; however, in Austria and certain places in Germany it is not uncommon to hear “Das tut man nicht!” instead of Das macht man nicht!
Anyway, this is a problem of Comparative linguistics which is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness, and, frankly, this is not the real subject of this post.

So,,, let`s go back to the differences between DO & MAKE in English language

DO is used as follows:

1. DO is used when talking about work, jobs or tasks. 
Note, they do not produce any physical object.

Have you done your homework?
I have guests visiting tonight so I should start doing the housework now.
I wouldn't like to do that job.

2. DO is used when we refer to activities in general without being specific. In these cases, we normally use words like thing, something, nothing, anything, everything etc.

Hurry up! I've got things to do!
Don't just stand there – do something!
Is there anything I can do to help you?

3. We sometimes use DO to replace a verb when the meaning is clear or obvious. This is more common in informal spoken English:

Do I need to do my hair? (do = brush or comb)
Have you done the dishes yet? (done = washed)
I'll do the kitchen if you do the lawns (do = clean, do = mow)

When do you use MAKE?

Make is for producing, constructing, creating or building something new.

It is also used to indicate the origin of a product or the materials that are used to make something.

His wedding ring is made of gold.
The house was made of adobe.
Wine is made from grapes.
The watches were made in Switzerland

We also use Make for producing an action or reaction:

Onions make your eyes water.
You make me happy.
It’s not my fault. My brother made me do it!

Use make after certain nouns about plans and decisions:

make the arrangements              make a choice

We use Make with nouns about speaking and certain sounds:

make a comment 
make a noise                  
make a speech

We use Make with Food, Drink and Meals:

make a cake             
make a cup of tea              
make dinner

Compare Do and Make

A: You have to make a cake for Simon.
B: I’ll do it later.

Notice how the verb DO is used by "B", in his / her answer. This is because the meaning is clear and to avoid saying “I’ll make it later.” which could sound repetitive.

Common Expressions with Do and Make

The following expressions are set collocations (combinations of words that frequently appear together) that you need to learn:

Expressions with DO

The following words are normally used with Do:
  • a course
  • a crossword
  • a dance
  • a drawing
  • a favor / favour
  • a job
  • a painting
  • a project
  • a service
  • an assignment
  • anything
  • badly
  • business
  • chores
  • damage
  • everything
  • exercises
  • good
  • harm
  • laundry
  • nothing
  • research
  • right (the right thing)
  • something
  • the gardening
  • the housework
  • the ironing
  • the dishes
  • the rest
  • the shopping
  • the washing
  • well
  • work
  • wrong (the wrong thing)
  • your best
  • your hair
  • your homework
  • your job
  • your nails
  • your work

Expressions with MAKE

The following words are normally used with MAKE:
  • a bet
  • a cake
  • a call
  • a change
  • a choice
  • a comment
  • a complaint
  • a confession
  • a connection
  • a cup of coffee / tea
  • a date
  • a decision
  • a demand
  • a difference
  • a discovery
  • a face
  • a fool of yourself
  • a fortune
  • a friend
  • a fuss
  • a joke
  • a line
  • a list
  • a living
  • a loss
  • a mess
  • a mistake
  • a noise
  • a pass at someone
  • a plan
  • a point
  • a prediction
  • a profit
  • a promise
  • a reservation
  • a sandwich
  • a scene
  • a sound
  • a speech
  • a statement
  • a suggestion
  • advances
  • alterations
  • an appointment
  • an announcement
  • an attempt
  • an effort
  • an error
  • an escape
  • an exception
  • an excuse
  • an impression
  • an observation
  • an offer
  • amends
  • arrangements
  • breakfast
  • certain
  • clear
  • dinner
  • faces
  • famous
  • fun of someone
  • love
  • lunch
  • inquiries
  • peace
  • possible
  • progress
  • money
  • room
  • sales
  • sense
  • someone rich
  • someone smile
  • sure
  • trouble
  • war
  • your bed
  • your mind up
  • your way
 Exercise: choose do or make; pay attention to the verb tense forms !
  1. ----------------the shopping every Friday afternoon.
  2. Please, can you -------------------------a reservation for me?
  3. She doesn't ---------------------much money.
  4. Nobody helps my mother to --------------------- the housework.
  5. Will you -------------------------- me a favor? Help me carry this table.
  6. Let's ------------------------------the appointment for 10:00 in the morning.
  7. Try not to -------------------- any grammar mistakes in your writing.
  8. Oh, dear! There is so much laundry to ----------------------------- !
  9. She always ------------------- the dishes late at night.
  10. I'll ----------------------- spaghetti for dinner. Do you like it?
  11. She-------------scrambled eggs for breakfast.
  12. Please, ------------the dishes after dinner.
  13. He is a carpenter. He ------------furniture.
  14. Two plus three ..........five
  15. ----------- something!
  16.  .........up your mind.
  17. When I went back to the kitchen I saw the children had __________ a mess on the floor ...
  18. When I got outside the door I had to __________ my way through crowds of demonstrators to get to my car.
  19. The first thing he wanted me to __________ was to make up a good slogan for a publicity campaign.
  20. I went to my desk but as soon as I began to work I realized someone had __________ something childish and stuck my mouse to the table with chewing gum.
  21. I didn't want to __________ a mountain out of a molehill so I said nothing.
  22. I took the research to my boss but he __________ an excuse and didn't look at it.

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